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Soap Saponification

Soap Saponification A Crutcher is the main reaction vessel in the semi-boiled saponification process, or simply a mixing vessel in the soap modification process. It can be used to make a wide variety of soaps or for mixing additives and fillers into liquid soap. Crutches are very easy to use and are generally found in laundry soap factories. They are also used in more sophisticated plants, such as for making transparent soap.
Saponification Jet :  
The Saponification Jet is a simple instant saponification device, which is used for continuous saponification. A Jet has no moving parts and uses motive steam as the energy source. Only 100kgs of steam per tonne of soap is required. A Jet can be adjusted for soap outputs from 1 to 10 tonnes/hr. 

The Jet operates by driving 5 bar motive steam through an internal venturi jet to create a vacuum. The steam venture jet is fitted with a needle valve, to control the flow rate, hence suction volume, hence output. 

Surrounding the steam jet are two further concentric barrels, for caustic liquor and oils. The venturi vacuum draws in both materials, where they meet in the presence of steam. The result is instantaneous saponification, with 90 % reacted neat soap being discharged directly from the Jet. 

The Jet unit is an accurate metering device, which has been designed and subjected to an intensive development process. Individual components are precision machined from 316 stainless steel. Detailed inspection and careful assembly then follow, to ensure high tolerances are maintained. 
The Jet is fitted with flanged inlets for steam, caustic and mixed fats. It has an expansion tapered tail pipe, through which soap is discharged. Normal practice is to fit the Jet into a weir tank, to create a delay of 3 to 5 minutes, during which time almost all commonly used soap fats or oils will achieve complete saponification. Neat soap is then discharged to a feed tank, ready for delivery to the drying system. If neutral fats are used the secondary reaction time may extend to 30 minutes.

Saponification Jet
A fine tuning adjustment is provided at the bottom of the Jet, for use during commissioning. This allows an accurate balance of fats to caustic ratio to be set, thus optimizing saponification. 

Basic Manual Operation :

In a basic installation the flows of mixed fats and caustic liquor are normally delivered to the Jet from overhead constant level tanks, through manually operated ball valves. A first valve acts as shut-off and a second is set during commissioning, to provide fixed flow control. Start up and shut-down are then very simple procedures. 

At the end of the production day, the fat and caustic shut-off valves are closed and steam is allowed to clean the jet, for a few minutes. A small steam purge line may be fitted to the fats line, to clean this out prior to shut-down.
Once the Jet has self cleaned for a short while, the steam is turned off.

At the beginning of the day steam is turned on to warm the jet and produce the vacuum. The overhead tanks are confirmed full, and then the fat and caustic shut-off valves opened. Soap forms immediately and is then continuously delivered, as long as required. 

Provided the Jet is allowed to self clean at the end of the previous day the start up procedure only takes a few minutes. 

Remote Controlled Operation :

The Jet can be installed with solenoid valves on the fat and caustic lines, plus steam regulating valve. This allow the Jet to be regulated from a remote station, where required by factory conditions. Specifications and installation plans can be agreed, to suit individual customer requirements.

Standard Installations :

Some traditional soap makers begin continuous saponification by using the Jet as a kettle filling device, whilst they become used to operating it. Within a few days it is realized that the Jet completely replaces the boiling operation, hence kettle output can easily be doubled.

Many Jet users install complete Jet & Weir Tank systems, which are very compact, needing less than 10 Cubic Metres space. Full installation details are available for common mounting schemes. 

The Jet unit is 1.35 Metres high and weighs 150 kilos. The Jet is easy to install, low cost, tolerant to a wide range of raw materials, simple to use and very compact. 

Further Advantages :

The use of a Jet permits soap water content to be as low as the Soap Maker wishes to use. There is no need to have an excess of water, to assist saponification boiling, which then has to be removed in the spray drying plant. Some Jet users are making neat soap at near finished water content, then simply cooling by vacuum spraying or using the drum cooling method. This gives a further and substantial saving of energy.

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